Mycology

1. General characters of Fungi: cell-ultra structure, unicellular and multicellular organization, hyphal growth, cell wall composition, nutrition (saprobic, biotrophic, symbiotic, predacious) reproduction (vegetative, asexual, sexual), heterothallism, parasexuality.

 2. Classification of fungi by Ainsworth & Bisby (1983), Alexopoulos et al. (1996)- Phylogeny of fungi Characters used in classification.

3. General account of Myxomycota, Mastigomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and mitosporicfungi. Different kinds of spores and their dispersal.

4. Fungi as saprophytes: details of the fungal decomposition of organic matter, coprophilous fungi, lignin degrading fungi, role of fungi in degradation of pesticides.

5. Fungi as symbionts: Mycorrhiza - ectotrophic, orchidaceous and Ericoid mycorrhiza, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza - their distribution and significance. Endophytes.

6. Lichenology: General account and systematics of lichens, thallus structure, reproductive bodies, ecological significance and economic importance of lichens.

Plant Pathology

1. Principles of Plant Pathology- Causal agents of plant diseases - Biotic causes (fungi, bacteria, virus, mycoplasma, nematodes, angiospermic parasites. Abiotic causes (nutrient and mineral deficiencies, effect 

of pollution). Koch's postulates. Latrogenic diseases. Seed pathology.

2. Details of different symptoms of plant diseases.

3. Process of infection- mechanical, physiological and enzymatic action. Penetration and entry of pathogens in to host tissue.

4. Host- parasite interaction. Enzymes and toxins in pathogenesis. Defense mechanisms in plants (structural and biochemical).

5. Details of different ways of spread and transmission of plant diseases- wind and water-mediated, seed borne and vector borne.

6. Plant disease management- exclusion, eradication and protection. Different pesticides and fungicides and their application. Biocides in plant protection.

7. Study of the following diseses with reference to the symptoms, causal organisms, disease cycle and control measures: Bunchy top of banana, Bacterial blight of paddy, Bud rot of coconut, Mahali of Arecanut, Powdery mildew of rubber, Abnormal leaf fall of rubber, tikka disease of Ground nut, Late blight of potato, Blister blight of tea, wheat rust, coffee rust, grey leaf spot of coconut, Phytophthora foot rot of pepper, rhizome rot of ginger and turmeric, angiospermic parasites-Viscum, Dendropthoe.