Plant Physiology

This course is for the MSc Third Semester students 

1. Water and plant cells: Properties of water, hydrogen bonding, polaritv, cohesion and adhesion. The concept of water potential. Water movements in cells and tissues. Soil-plant atmosphere continuum.  Transpiration, stomatal movement, modern theories of stomatal mechanism. The ascent of xylem water and the up take of water by roots. Absorption of mineral ions-solute absorption.

 2. Plants and nitrogen: The nitrogen cycle. Biological nitrogen fixation, symbiotic nitrogen fixation in leguminous plants. Biochemistry of nitrogen fixation. Export of fixed nitrogen from nodules. Genetics of nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen assimilation, assimilation of nitrate. Nitrogen nutrition -agricultural and ecological aspects. Biosynthesis of amino acids- reductive amination and transamination. GDH and GS/ GOGAT pathway.

3. Photosynthesis: Absorption and fate of light energy, absorption and action spectra. Photoreceptors chlorophylls, carotenoids, phycobilins. Bioenergetics and the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation. The two pigment systems , Z-scheme, water oxidizing clock. The photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle, C3, C2,C4 and CAM metabolism and ecological significance.

4. Tanslocation and distribution of photo assimilates. Phloem transport, Sources and sinks, mechanism of translocation. Phloem loading and unloading, distribution of assimilates. Translocation of xenobiotic chemicals.

5. Patterns in plant development: Growth, differentiation, and development. Genetic control and hormonal regulation of development. Seed germination- physiology of hormones in plant development auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, absciscic acid and ethylene. Role of vitamins and nutrients.

6. Photomorphogenesis: Phytochrome: chemistry and physiological effects. Mechanism of phytochrome and gene action. Cryptochromes and blue light effect.

7. Stress Physiology: Types of stress- water, temperature, salt, stresses caused by pests and pathogens and pollutants